Network infrastructures


Network Infrastructures are communication systems, which include a figure of physical hardware such as “ routers, switches, gateways, Bridgess, hubs and nodes ” that are used to convey the informations within the web. [ 1 ] These substructures are presently used all over the universe with most administrations, for illustration offices complecting employees ‘ computing machines sharing hardware peripherals such as pressmans and resources/documents through shared web booklets.

Networks can be based on LAN ( Local Area Networks ) , WAN ( Wide Area Networks ) and VPN ( Virtual Private Networks ) amongst many others. Depending on the size and restrictions of an administration, a web substructure could be premeditated to run into the maps of the administration.

The intent of this papers is to suggest a WAN architecture to better the current LAN substructure of TOYS-4-U, which is based in London every bit good as new subdivisions to be installed in New York, Istanbul and Delhi. The proposal will include upgrading all of the hardware in the current subdivision in London, upgrading the waiter runing systems and adding new services such as IPTV, synergistic web sites every bit good as e-commerce sites. Alongside upgrading the London site, New York, Istanbul and Delhi will be installed from abrasion ; this will let TOYS-4-U to spread out their concern globally, where the services such as e-commerce will spread out the company ‘s grosss.


  • To make a reappraisal papers for TOYS-4-U with advice to upgrade the current web substructure and waiter operating system
  • Expand services such as IPTV, synergistic web sites for kids and e-commerce sites for grownups
  • To suggest web substructures in a few geographical profitable locations


  • Research the engineerings with LANs and WANs and the waiter runing systems
  • Research and happen relevant information on IPTV, synergistic web sites and e-commerce
  • Select the web substructure that is up to day of the month and supply information on care issues

The Current System


The current system is based on a “ Star wired Bus ” web topology connected through coaxal ( RG-58 ) telegraphing on a 10Base-2 web. 10Base-2 webs allow a communicating velocity between nodes of up to a upper limit of 10Mbps [ 2 ] with a maximal overseas telegram length of 185 meters. The computing machines need BNC-T connections that must be attached to the NICs ( Network Interface Cards ) in order to let entree to the web [ 3 ] . The manner the nodes within this web communicate is alone, one time the message is sent from one of the nodes it travels through the anchor medium as the message is broadcasted, nevertheless it is merely the receiver node that accepts and so processes the message [ 4 ] ( Layperson ‘s Guide To Network and Networking, 2004 ) .

The chief issue with the web topology running the system is that if the anchor medium of the web corrupts so the whole web will be terminated – doing loss of communicating between any of the devices/nodes connected to the web. This is the 1 of the grounds as to why the new system is to be implemented ; as the web is aging the system is neglecting more frequently, doing a deficiency of work done.

Server Operating Systems

The web is presently running on two waiters, the operating systems used on these waiters are Windows Server 2000 SP4 and Microsoft SQL Server 2000 SP4. Windows Server 2000 is presently running on the latest service battalion for its operating system, it is the sphere accountant for the web running the sphere name “ toysforu.local ” and maintaining the computing machines and users histories on active directory.

Microsoft SQL Server 2000 is besides used in the web ; this waiter is used to maintain the database of the stock. As SQL waiter 2000 is a RDBMS ( Relational Database Management System ) ; which allows the users to make relational databases every bit good as updating them. This means that the tabular arraies ‘ administration within a database does non necessitate altering when the user wishes to entree and pull strings the information. [ 5 ] TOYS-4-U has been utilizing this server solution to maintain path of the stock.

Microsoft Windows 2000 was released on February 17th 2000, as it is the replacement to Windows NT 4.0. All of the nodes within the web are running on this operating system as the updates and support is still active where for Windows NT 4.0 was stopped on 30 June 2004. [ 7 ]

Current Network Issue

The current web topology is a immense drawback for the company. The “ Star wired Bus ” topology is non so reliant due to the fact that it is still running as a Bus topology. If the anchor medium interruptions, the full system will be down doing a batch of loss in informations and clip ; which leads to loss of money for the company. The web is presently at a transportation rate of 10Mbps, which is instead slow for such a company. The coaxal RG-58 overseas telegrams are merely used in smaller webs, as they are expensive and hard to put in since the overseas telegrams are non really flexible and easy to interrupt. Coax RG-58 ‘s are besides non supported in high terminal networking criterions.

It is a fact that trying to mend a system like this will take up a big sum of clip, as coaxal overseas telegrams are known to interrupt doing the web to clang. Regardless of this issue, the system will still non let the employees to work to their full extent. Equally good as the hardware, the package is besides negligible to keep as the support for Windows Server 2000, Microsoft SQL Server 2000 and Windows 2000 is due to stop July 13th 2010. [ 6 ] Making this the ideal clip to upgrade the system. Most companies will be utilizing more efficient and modern-day package in order to bring forth competitory designs and let employees to work more expeditiously and efficaciously. Therefore the web will be wholly replaced, from the web topology to the package used ( runing system and applications ) .

TOYS-4-U presently does non hold any other subdivisions around the universe, which is non assisting the company expand their work force for it to go a world-wide known toy company.

The Proposed System

The proposed system will dwell of four geographical sites located in London, New York, Delhi and Istanbul. Due to this factor there were two apparatuss that were considered ; traditional wired LAN connected as WAN through the Internet and Cloud Computing. The concluding web apparatus that was preferred is to put in was the traditional sea physical web at the four locations holding a local country web connexion within, and complect all four webs through the Internet. Each of the LANs will hold a File Server ( Distributed File System enabled ) , Print Server, Active Directory, WSUS ( Windows Service Update Server ) , SQL Server and an IPTV Data Network Server. Chapter 6.1 & A ; Chapter 6.2 will be traveling more into deepness of the locations and web substructures.

The secondary engineering that was considered was “ Cloud Computing ” . This engineering allows applications and informations being used through a simple web-browser. This means that there is no-need for applications and informations to be stored locally on a computing machine. These could be simple applications like e-mailing or more complex services such as office applications e.g. Google Apps [ 8 ] . There are many cloud calculating solution suppliers such as ElasticHosts, Amazon EC2, Google and Microsoft Azure amongst many others. Windows Azure is the latest cloud-computing platform provided by Microsoft. This platform allows applications to be hosted every bit good as to run them by the Microsoft DataCenters, which are server farms of Microsoft leting the hosting of applications. The chief advantage of this platform is that it allows easy execution, as there is no demand for physical hardware or package licensing. However, a drawback for this type of engineering, which can non be ignored, is that when there is no Internet connexion, so there is non anything that can be done. Security is another major issue with cloud calculating as the applications and informations will be stored on one of the universe ‘s largest waiters, “ So it ‘s Equus caballuss for classs ” [ 9 ] . However, due to certain pros such as high handiness and scalability of this engineering, cloud calculating will be implemented for the synergistic web site and the e-commerce for TOYS-4-U.

Due to the company prosecuting their highest potency, the chief ground the proposed system was preferred because the company needs to work internally every bit good as externally. Therefore if there was an Internet connexion job, everything could still be accessed internally and employees could go on with at that place allocated function. However, since the cloud calculating solution for the web hosting will all be in the cloud, clients could entree all the information for the ground that everything will be available in the cloud.


The proposed system will better in topology, from a coaxal 10Base-T Star wired Bus to an Ethernet 1000Base-T Star web. This web will be cabled utilizing Category 5 ( RJ-45 ) telegraphing presenting 1Gbps – 100 times faster so the old web apparatus [ 11 ] . The selected topology is a Star topology where the nodes within the web are arranged similar to a tree, but without running on a physical anchor medium. This topology will be used in all four sites of the WAN. The WAN Network diagram is attached as Appendix 1.

The Servers will be straight connected to the switches. The switches consist of the fibre ocular connexions coming from the router, which is firewalled and connects straight to the Internet, as it is the default gateway. The nodes within the web are connected to the switch through a spot panel. The radio routers are besides connected to the spot panel. The clients/workstations ( running on Windows 7® ) will be linking to the web through the radio routers and the spot panels. The same web apparatus applies to all four sites, but with specific waiters installed. Each waiter carries out a different function within the web, the functions for the waiters are:

Distributed File System ( DFS ) will be made usage of for the new WAN apparatus for TOYS-4-U. DFS allows simplified entree to files and booklets within a planetary web. This is done through file reproduction as DFS makes the files available for users over multiple sites. DFS is extremely fault tolerant as it transparently routes users to the waiter that is following available in the instance where one waiter fails. DFS besides allows a smart entree to files and booklets by turn uping the user to the closest possible waiter keeping the requested file or booklet. [ 10 ] See Appendix 2 for the DFS apparatus for TOYS-4-U.

The web substructure cabling and puting up for the central offices in London will be done through Ramesys besides supplying web support and direction. [ 14 ] ( Ramesys, 2009 ) However, Ramesys do non supply on-line citations, therefore the company must be contacted through electronic mail or telephone. Ramesys has supplied the substructure edifice and web support for a company ( The Gladys Aylward School ) known by the suggester ( Mehmet Ali Urul ) . After unwritten research the monetary value to set-up the web with the cabling and web points every bit good as direction and support by Ramesys adds up to the part of & A ; lb ; 47,000.00 ( 3 old ages ) . However, this is an estimate, as the company was non contacted straight.


London: The central offices for TOYS-4-U ‘s distributed web system lies in London. Replacing the old web system, this location will keep five physical waiters, where one of which will be running four practical waiters in a Hyper-V environment on Windows Server 2008. The file waiter in this location will keep the maestro namespace for the DFS. This site will chiefly be concentrating on physical advertizement of TOYS-4-U together with New York and Istanbul.

New York & A ; Istanbul: These locations for two of the four sites were chosen because they are among the cardinal advertisement locations. These sites will dwell of three physical waiters where one of which will be running three practical waiters in a Hyper-V environment. DFS will be enabled within the File and Print waiters within these locations.

Delhi: This site will dwell of three physical waiters, one of which will be running three practical machines in a Hyper-V environment. The Web Server will be implemented at this site, as this site will be covering with the on-line advertizement of the company. The synergistic web sites for childs and the e-commerce web site will be created here. The employees in Delhi will besides be looking at SEO ( Search Engine Optimisation ) , which will be doing TOYS-4-U become among the first hunt consequences in search engines. At the minute, when one is seeking for “ Toys ” through Google, the first web site which appears is “ Toys-R-Us ” . The purpose is to do TOYS-4-U go the first nexus to look within search consequences. This will increase company position every bit good as its grosss.

Server Operating Systems

The Server Operating Systems that are chosen for the proposed web are Windows Server 2008 R2, Exchange Server 2007, and SQL Server 2008. Windows Server 2008 R2 was released on 22nd October 2009. This is yet the most extremely developed Windowss waiter that has been introduced. Leting complex services available to construct and pull off the following coevals of networking. [ 12 ] Client and server virtualisation is now possible utilizing the Hyper-V function within Server 2008. The practical waiters will be created and managed on Hyper-V.

Hyper-V is among the undermentioned functions, which will be selected within Server 2008 to run the TOYS-4-U web: File, Print, Active Directory, Domain Controller, DHCP, and IIS. WSUS ( Windows Server Update Services ) will be installed on the same practical machine that SQL Server 2008 will be installed. “ SQL Server 2008 delivers a rich set of incorporate services that enable you to make more with your informations such as question, hunt, synchronise, study, and analyze. ” [ 13 ]


IPTV ( Internet Protocol Television )

IPTV systems allow 100s of Television channels, pictures, presentations or any sort media to be viewed on an limitless sum of computing machines or telecastings every bit long as they are connected to the LAN. Signals of the picture or Television are converted into informations watercourses so that they can go through through the web as other paperss and files would. In order to implement the IPTV system, a few hardware resources are needed. IP Encoders, IPTV Data Network and IPTV receiving systems are among the necessary equipment implement an IPTV system. This will let pictures, presentations and unrecorded pictures amongst other media to be straight displayed on Plasmas, PCs, Laptops every bit good as projectors. The Diagram below is an illustration of TOYS-4-U ‘s IPTV system. [ 15 ]

Respectively the system requires certain hardware enabling needed questions and functionalities such as switches. Below is a list of demands to implement and IPTV system taken from an “ IPTV based expert company – KlickTV ” .

“ Backbone bandwidth demand is calculated as the figure of channels streamed ten bandwidth per channel. Typically channels are streamed at 4 Mbps each for MPEG2. eg for 12 channels the entire bandwidth demand on the anchor is 12×4= 48Mbps. At least one web switch is required to hold IGMP Querier functionality. All switches must be multicast enabled- IGMP V2 capableness. All switches must be capable of utilizing PIM ( Sparse & A ; Dense manner ) if VLAN routing is to be implemented. The web equipment should be capable of running QoS if other traffic on the web is likely to endanger the existent clip bringing of the IPTV informations watercourses. Inactive IP references are preferred for the IPTV equipment. A 100Mbps port is required for each MPEG2 encoder and 3x 100Mbps ports are required for a Television Gateway. ”

Website ( Kid Interactivity and E-Commerce )

The e-commerce for this company will be managed within the site in Delhi, hosting the web site and pull offing it online through Windows Azure cloud calculating solution. The Delhi will non hold a web waiter installed, but alternatively will be utilizing the Windows Azure hosted waiters and applications in the “ cloud ” to implement the web sites.

E-commerce: The employees at the e-commerce site will be making a database based shopping web site which will be accessed straight on ‘ ‘ or through the nexus on the childs interactivity website on ‘ ‘ . This site will be created and managed within the cloud where the company ‘s web waiter will co-occur along with the applications needed. The database of merchandises and clients inside informations will be held on the SQL waiter which will non be on the cloud but physical due to the security facets of cloud computer science.

Childs: A web site will be created which will be specifically aiming kids leting merriment interactivity. These will be games based on toys TOYS-4-U provides. This method will let childs to run into the merchandises that TOYS-4-U has to offer to clients. Parents gaining the consequence of the playthings can snap the “ View Toy Details ” nexus on the page which will let entree to the online shopping web site of TOYS-4-U.

Network Maintenance

The star topology has been chosen to be implemented for this system, as it is the most robust and one of the most normally used topologies every bit good as the most ideal topology to be used. The computing machine hardware has a 5-year support with following concern twenty-four hours on-site service. This covers all the good purchased from Dell ( Desktops ( including proctors ) , Printers, Servers, Routers and Switch ) . The will necessitate a web director and web technicians to maintain the web running swimmingly, placing and restituting the system in the shortest clip possible. Ramesys will remotely pull off the system if the recommendation is acknowledged, alongside the web care squad.


T1Line will supply the Internet to the company as it provides high bandwidth Internet to consumers. A quotation mark has been requested from T1Line but the response has been negative. The company will be paying about & amp ; lb ; 75.00 a month for fibre ocular Internet connexion.

Microsoft® Azure® will be used in India, the quotation mark for this merchandise has been approved on-line as Appendix 3 and Appendix 4 shows. The quotation mark is made in Indian Rupees bing the company Rs10,223,74.00 ; that is about & amp ; lb ; 141,229.41 for three old ages of web hosting together with the application.


In decision, with clear testimony the old system for TOYS-4-U was backdated for about a decennary as the old waiter runing systems and the client runing system proves. It is the best clip for upgrading the system since the support for these merchandises are due to stop on 13th July 2010. The new waiter operating system will let TOYS-4-U to detect and do usage of the latest engineering such as server virtualisation every bit good as doing usage of cloud computer science.

The hardware and package along with the services are wholly future cogent evidence. The waiters, switches, routers and desktops are at the high terminal of engineering where all will be updated with driver and service ascents. The package includes MS Office 2007 with the full bundle, this will let the users to see, edit and make office files without the demand of a convertor and with no fuss as it is the latest version of MS Office. The Star topology will replace the current Star wired Bus topology doing it more robust and mistake cogent evidence. Once the proposed web topology is installed the system will go more stable. IPTV is amongst the new services that will be installed for TOYS-4-U leting video transmittal encoded to informations and displayed at TOYS-4-U ‘s web locations. IPTV will besides let picture conferencing aboard streaming pictures. The E-commerce service is a immense measure frontward in concern as more and more concerns are going online based. This will increase advertizement ( chiefly though SEO ) every bit good every bit grosss as clients could no store wherever they want every bit long as they have an Internet connexion. The childs Interaction site is a great manner to associate clients from games to shopping.

The loanblend web system of traditional networking and cloud computer science has been carefully selected to supply the company a high-end, fast and dependable system. The cloud computer science will let the informations to be available to clients as it is all on the cloud ( Internet ) , nevertheless the clients inside informations will be saved on the physical SQL waiter due to security ruins within this engineering. The proposed web substructure suits the company the highest as it rejuvenates the web system from its old province and will maintain TOYS-4-U at the latest engineering.


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